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Tips To Make Your Black Friday And Cyber Monday Marketing And Promotions Stand Out

Tips To Make Your Black Friday And Cyber Monday Marketing And Promotions Stand Out discusses tips and tricks to increase visibility and boost sales this Black Friday and Cyber Monday.

1. Sweeten the deal more to stand out

Competition will be manic this year, as customers will be spoiled for choice and pricing won’t be the only thing they’ll be looking for. Sweeten the deal by offering ‘freebies’ like: free shipping, free gifts for when they spend over a certain amount taking service to the next level with a live chat.

2. Improve user-friendliness on your website

Scrutinise your website and get a few mystery shoppers to do the same. Then obtain feedback and make the necessary changes. What is your competition doing differently?

Remember: your checkout process needs to be quick and efficient; you need to have multiple payment gateways and your site needs to be secure with trust-building badges and reviews visible.

3. Make sure your site is mobile-friendly

Don’t take your developers’ word for it, follow the same process as above (on multiple types of phones). Ensure that the display and navigation are as easy and as visually pleasing via mobile as it is on a desktop.

4. Check your site’s speed and adjust if needed

Check your site’s speed using Google’s tool and fix what needs to be fixed. If it takes more than two seconds for your e-commerce website to load, you could be losing potential customers. Look at getting faster and more reliable hosting, and make the change today.

5. Build a Christmas audience while you are at it

Curious shoppers will be dropping by your website to browse, many of whom may leave empty handed. However, you can leverage this opportunity to build your Christmas emailing list. A simple way is to create a pop-up that encourages visitors to subscribe to your newsletter and/or promotional emails, to obtain a 10% discount on their next online purchase. A competition could also be a good idea to get those email sign-ups.

Incentivise shoppers who have completed an online purchase for their next shopping experience with you as well, and don’t forget to ask for reviews.

6. Ensure you are prepared for shipping and returns

Be upfront about your shipping costs, delivery time frames and returns policy. Ensure that shoppers will be able to receive their purchases within a relatively short time frame. If your deals are great, then there may be some frenzy-shopping going on, and the last thing you need is disgruntled customers complaining about your after-sale service.

7. Get the word out

What you want: an influx of new customers and sales over this shopping weekend.

What you don’t want: zero sales leading up to this weekend as everyone is holding off for the Black Friday sale. Or worse, getting lost between the bulk of other marketing messages on this day.

Timing is everything when it comes to getting the word out for your Black Friday and Cyber Monday campaigns. Don’t wait until the 26th to promote, but don’t start too soon either. Remember, online competition will be hectic, and social media feeds will be flooded with deals, yours need to have an impact and the WOW-factor.

If sales for the products you sell are low this time of the year anyway (i.e. winter clothing) start promoting this now.

Marketing ideas:

  • Offer gift ideas: Write a blog, send it via email or use your social media platforms.
  • Get an influencer on-board: team up with a popular influencer in your industry to create social content about a product.
  • Collaborate with another brand: find a company with whom you can do affiliate marketing with. For example, if you sell wine, team up with a glass company that sells great wine glasses. They advertise your promotion on their campaigns, and you can do the same for them.
  • Create visually striking content: make beautiful and striking social media posts, landing pages, banners etc.
  • Offer something exclusive: how about selling an exclusive product during Black Friday and Cyber Monday weekend? Example: if you sell T-shirts, design or bring in something awesome but only make or order limited stock and promote it as a ‘once-off’.
  • Treat your regulars to even more: create an email list for your ‘regulars’ (people who have shopped from you at least 2-3 times this year) and reward their support with a bonus discount promotion.
  • Ramp up the reviews: customers like to hear from happy customers. Ask you satisfied clients to share and tell their stories.
  • Black Friday and Cyber Monday weekend is like the prequel, or dry run up to Christmas. Get this right and your Christmas campaign could run even more smoothly this year.


Navigating The Future Of Customer Experience

Navigating The Future Of Customer Experience
Greg Gatherer, Account Manager, Liferay.

According to Greg Gatherer, Account Manager at Liferay, companies must find innovative ways to distinguish their offerings through the entire customer lifecycle, including later stages that still have untapped opportunities for engagement.

In today’s competitive world, brand loyalty is no longer a guarantee for digital businesses. Customers are increasingly making purchases based on the experience that companies offer, rather than on the products or the prices. This means that customer experience has become a major differentiator for digital businesses.

Customer experience doesn’t end after purchase

People have grown accustomed to doing their own research on products before engaging with a brand. Key findings from a Gartner customer experience survey show that 82% of smartphone users consult their phones before they make a purchase in-store. This means that the opportunities a company has to influence customers in the early stages of the customer lifecycle are being cut down.

But there are still ample opportunities to reach out to new customers post-purchase and continue to engage them as a way of preparing them for the next purchase with your company. Research has shown that existing customers are both easier to sell to and more profitable than new customers.

Rather than focusing on narrowing opportunities to influence new customers, businesses should find ways to nurture their existing customers, ultimately turning them into advocates that will come back to purchase again and again.

Changes in customer loyalty

If existing customers are so profitable, why do businesses neglect them in favour of new customers? Often, the answer comes down to the changing nature of customer loyalty and how difficult it is to turn people into repeat customers.

Companies used to be able to develop lifelong brand loyalty in their customers through big campaigns or traditional loyalty programmes. The idea of lifelong brand fans meant that loyalty was defined as buying solely from that brand —  like a staunch supporter of Coca-Cola that refused to drink Pepsi.

Now, it is incredibly easy for customers to switch brands, and they don’t hesitate to exert that right. Millennials will cite anything from poor customer experience to feeling that a brand no longer fits their identity as reasons for moving on from a previously favourite brand. Experiences are what earn customers’ loyalty today, and businesses will need to adjust their strategies in order to account for this reality. The more information and differentiators companies are able to offer with their experiences, the more loyal customers will be.

These four strategies will help you focus your efforts on engaging your existing customers in a way that creates loyalty for your brand.

1. Collect the right data

Companies need to collect information that is actionable, not just interesting. There’s no value in asking customers to give up personal details if that data cannot be analysed for new ways to advance your business. Companies would do better to focus on tracking behaviours that give them a better understanding of their customers.

With detailed insight, companies can choose to alert store reps, confirm product availability before customers show up, offer free delivery if they give online purchasing a try, or send a reminder that, if the customer comes in a day early, they’ll be able to take advantage of the store’s annual sale. These are the kinds of detailed insights that differentiate experiences, the way a mom and pop shop would be able to simply by familiarity with its customers.

2. Go beyond segmenting

One of the benefits of refocusing on engaging existing customers is that you have an opportunity to gain deeper insights by continuing to collect and analyse data over time. Track the way customer behaviour changes throughout repeat purchases and use that to inform the experience you’re creating for new customers. Eventually, you should also be able to use this data to more accurately identify who your top customers are, and what it is that keeps them consistently engaged with your company.

3. Turn service culture into a process

Great customer experience often comes down to a story about exceptional one-on-one employee-customer interactions. Part of great customer experience is maintaining consistency across interactions through the use of technology. Take a local coffee shop as an example: if its customers pay through a mobile app, the store will automatically have a record of their usual orders. If that information is shared with the POS system when the customer walks into the store, then it doesn’t matter if they come at a different time of day or go to a different location — the cashier still knows their usual order. Customers have access to the same great experience, and it’s consistent for all customers, instead of being dependent on the regular cashier remembering a customer’s face and preferences.

4. Integrate loyalty initiatives into your digital strategy

The goal of focusing on existing customers is still to drive profit through excellent service, and that might look different than a traditional loyalty programme. Companies need to assess the success of loyalty initiatives within the context of their entire digital strategy, rather than assuming loyalty programmes will be profitable on their own.

The future of customer experience

As new digital channels open up, companies will need to be prepared to manage data in a way that eliminates noise and focuses on valuable insights that can enhance the customer experience. Digital leaders are focusing heavily on transforming their companies so that their technology solutions are part of a unified platform.

Business systems need to be able to tap into the many disparate touchpoints customers are interacting with and process that data quickly and efficiently. The future of customer experience depends on taking this detailed customer knowledge to scale, and using that to consistently deliver personalised experiences at the individual level. Data not only matters, it is thought to be among the most precious assets most organisations have.


Boomtown Buffs Its Creative Output With New Appointments

Boomtown Buffs Its Creative Output With New Appointments
Marvyn Msipha, Mongezi Xhoma, Dudu Hlatshwayo, Thule Ngese and Musa Nhlapo, Boomtown.

Boomtown is gearing for growth in 2022. Newcomers to its team include: Account Director Dudu Hlatshwayo, Brand and Communication Strategist Marvyn Msipha, Art Director Mongezi Xhoma and Copywriter Musa Nhlapo.

This comes hot on the heels of bringing creative heavy-weight Thule Ngcese onboard to further buff its creative output. Together with Ngcese, the newcomers are based in the agency’s Johannesburg office but work on its clients with a national footprint including NESCAFÉ RICOFFY, South African National Space Agency (SANSA), Lafarge, Hogan Lovells and Easigas. Collectively, the newcomers have worked on close to 50 brands.

A Journalism and Media Studies graduate, Hlatshwayo has been in the industry since 2014 and worked at Don’t Look Down Entertainment as a social media content creator, Ogilvy & Mather as a through-the-line account director and Sauce Advertising as a senior account manager and digital specialist.

Msipha’s professional skills include brand positioning, category and competitor analysis, consumer insights, qualitative and quantitative research analysis and developing go-to market strategies that deliver against key business and brand KPIs. He has gained experience as a junior strategist at Joe Public and then as a brand and communications strategist at Publicis. In 2017, Msipha served on the Student Brand Council.

Graphic Design and Visual Communication graduate Xhoma has also studied Management of Innovation and Technology in Graphic Design and completed the Umuzi Photoclub Power of 50 Programme run through the Vega Brand Leadership and Da Vinci Institute in Gauteng. He has worked at Y&R Labstore as a junior art director, Jetline as a graphic designer and DTP, TBWA Hunts Lascaris as a digital designer and photographer and Promise as a digital art director.

Both music and marketing disciplines come together when copywriter Nhlapo composes brand audio assets, and his knack for storytelling through music in film is evident in projects such as Instimbi, an official selection of The Jozi Film Festival. Nhlapo holds a Higher Diploma in copywriting as well as a Certificate in Audio Technology from the Academy of Sound Engineering (SAE), and he is currently enrolled in a Music Theory Program at UNISA.


Ads24 Wins WAN-IFRA Advertising Innovation And DMA Assegai Leader Awards

Ads24 Wins WAN-IFRA Advertising Innovation And DMA Assegai Leader Awards
Gayle Edmunds, head of Content Hub, Ads24.

At the fourth edition of the global WAN-IFRA (World Association of News Publishers) Print Innovation Awards, Ads24’s Lil-let’s Talk campaign received top honours for Advertising Innovation. In collaboration with City Press and Daily Sun, the campaign provided a multi-media platform where people could learn more about topics such as menstruation and menopause from experts and find out more about Lil-let’s Talk platform.

The two news brands were selected because of their broad audiences beyond only those who menstruate to help dismantle stereotypes and broaden representation around these subjects.

Jurors praised the campaign, which ran across print, online and social media, for its thoughtful handling of content, noting that the topic of menstruation is rarely discussed. ‘I admire the team at Ads24 for their work and how they handled this important topic with such care,’ said one juror, while another praised the emphasis on creating good content evident throughout the campaign.

Ads24 has also earned an Assegai Leader Award for their City Press/Absa Money Makeover content campaign. This campaign provides 6 candidates with expert help in getting their finances in order and achieving their financial goals. The six are each paired with an adviser from the banking sponsor and supported through their journey by personal finance expert Maya Fisher-French.

‘We’re proud of, and grateful for, the recognition given to these two campaigns,’ said Gayle Edmunds, who heads up the Content Hub at Ads24. ‘This is a testament to the power and value of collaboration between media and business in working towards a shared purpose and social good. As the Lil-lets Talk and City Press Money Makeover campaigns have shown, such partnerships have the potential to make a real difference in people’s lives.’

‘Brands are continuously searching for quality of engagement with audiences,’ said Tasmia Ismael GM; Media24 Advertising Sales. ‘Having earned two prestigious awards affirms that we can achieve this for our customers in trustworthy, brand safe news environments, underpinned by unmatched storytelling.’


Apple’s Strong Pro-Privacy Stance Is Taking Its Toll On Local Advertisers

Apples Strong Pro-Privacy Stance Is Taking Its Toll On Local Advertisers
Niamh NicLiam, Head of Business Partnerships at Incubeta.

It seems Apple’s strong pro-privacy stance is taking its toll. Incubeta gives insight into how local brands have experienced it as well as some advice on how to deal with the fallout. 

Balancing the consumer’s right to privacy with the ability of businesses to accurately target consumers with relevant information and advertising is getting more complicated. Apple’s iOS 14 privacy settings implemented last year are not just taking their toll on large international companies, but local brands are now also feeling the effects.

The repercussions of Apple’s move to make cross-platform and cross-app tracking a strictly opt-in feature for iOS users hit financial headlines again late October when ad-funded tech company Snapchat’s share price took a 25% knock after posting disappointing results – which it blamed on Apple’s move.

The news, however, should not have been a total surprise as Facebook already admitted in a blog post in September that it had heard from advertisers that the impact on their ad investment had been greater than expected. Back in July, Facebook also warned investors that the knock-on effect of Apple’s decision would have a bigger impact on their third quarter results than they had seen in their second quarter.

South Africans feeling the pinch too

While South Africa is less dependent on Apple products, local brands have not escaped the fallout. ‘There has been a dip in Facebook performance at a number of local brands. When we heard the news from Apple last year we were hopeful that the impact would be negligible, but from July last year we already had to begin having conversations with clients. Once we started talking to other regions and global clients, we knew it was a real trend,’ commented Niamh NicLiam, Head of Business Partnerships at Incubeta.

All major social media platforms have been hit by the privacy move, but Facebook has been significantly impacted, due to its size and reach. ‘We have seen performance on Facebook take a knock, which has been difficult, because it’s not just big companies that have been affected. Some NGOs are seeing a marked decrease in their donations as a result of this,’ NicLiam says.

NicLiam warned that brands can’t simply assume that what worked in the past will keep working. ‘Advertisers and agencies will need to get creative with their testing strategies around alternative audience options or different bidding strategies. Different metrics should also be looked at. Previously we would look at the typical conversion metric like revenue and sales, but now we are also paying more attention to the engagement metrics,’ she said.

Apple’s move to stop user data harvesting may result in marketers reverting back to older methodologies to manage performance. ‘We haven’t been flung back into the days where we relied on focus groups, but advertisers may need to revert back to that kind of thinking – where it was a bit of a leap of faith, although now it’s a ‘statistically likely’ leap of faith. We can (and should) still A/B test quite easily with digital and we can still rely on a testing approach that will deliver insights to inform performance, we just can’t rely solely on a pixel anymore,’ NicLiam explained.

When it comes to Facebook, NicLiam said brands should also ensure that their creative is built for purpose. What works on one medium will not directly translate to another, and with Apple’s update, refining your approach to creative is now more important than ever, particularly from an engagement point of view.

Other practical steps which Incubeta advised when Apple announced its move still apply. These include:

• Verifying your brand domain on Facebook Business Manager.
• Installing Facebook’s conversion API. This has been designed to replicate the functionality of the Facebook pixel for tracking and measurement, but is now server-based rather than browser-based as before.
• Using server-side tag management is also suggested.

NicLiam said that while these are some of the basics that need to be done, brands will also have to get used to the fact that data is no longer as watertight as it used to be and marketing leaders will need to adopt a more creative and pragmatic approach.

‘We will need to look at things like engagement and lean into more organic strategies. It’s also important to remember that Facebook still has a wealth of data that can be effectively used for re-engagement. Taking a holistic approach to your media strategy by including PR and content marketing will also become more important. Finally, given the impact of the privacy measures, it is a good time to review your KPIs. What was possible before mid-2020 will no longer be possible today. We can no longer rely on the same metrics and our measures of success should change to reflect this,’ she advised.


Why Is Digital Marketing Important?

Why Is Digital Marketing Important?

According to Jacques du Bruyn, MD, Flume Digital Marketing and PR, the majority of your target audience is online, making digital marketing extremely important.

‘The majority of your target audience is looking for information on social media and websites. They are on blogs and forums and they will open up a ton of emails every day. Online is the best place for you to personalise your communication and reach them exactly where they are at,’ said du Bruyn.

To find out more on the importance of digital marketing, watch du Bruyn’s Modern Marketing TrendCamp video below. Subscribe to our YouTube channel for more informative content like this.


Offshoring Digital Marketing Work Will Offer Economic And Job Creation Opportunities For SA

Offshoring Digital Marketing Work Will Offer Economic And Job Creation Opportunities For SA
Carli Gey van Pittius, digital media specialist at +OneX.

Carli Gey van Pittius, digital media specialist at +OneX, says South Africa’s digital agencies are targeting offshore outsourcing as a growth opportunity. When it comes to digital marketing, new opportunities are opening up due to accelerated digitalisation in the wake of the pandemic. 

Organisations around the world have, by necessity, adopted remote working models during various stages of the pandemic to help contain the spread of the virus. This has worked out so well that vast swathes of the global workforce seem set to work from home at least some of the time even once the Covid-19 crisis is over.

That is not news at this point. However, one of the more interesting implications of this shift is that we can expect to see an explosion in offshore outsourcing as companies turn the whole world into their labour pool. After all, once a job can be done remotely, it becomes less relevant whether the worker’s home is London, New York, Cape Town or Mumbai.

Over the past few months, we have received many queries from agencies in the UK looking to supplement their digital skills with offshore services from South Africa. Providing operational and technical digital marketing skills is thus emerging as a potential growth market for our digital companies, building on our strengths in other offshoring services.

South Africa has a well-established call centre and business process outsourcing (BPO) industry, employing nearly 73,000 people and generating around R1.9 billion a year in export revenues. As Amazon’s fast-growing presence in Cape Town shows, we are also building a formidable reputation for offshore software development.

Covid catalyses skills demand

With everyone working, shopping and socialising online even more than they did before Covid, brands and agencies have needed to step up their digital marketing executions.

As they do so, they are facing a skills shortage as well as steep increases in overheads. Many are thus looking to countries with lower labour costs and good skills supply to close the gap. Agencies, in particular, are looking to ramp up the amount of tactical work they can take on without needing to recruit or train more employees.

With margins under pressure in the face of lower client budgets, some are also looking for ways to increase profitability. Outsourcing nuts-and-bolts work like campaign management, data management or programmatic buying lets them focus on the more lucrative strategic consulting work that they consider to be their differentiator.

South Africa’s unique advantages

Yet they are also deeply aware that they cannot afford to compromise on quality and reliability. As such, they need to work with agency partners that can deliver to global quality standards. South Africa is especially well suited to step into this gap because we offer high skilled people with relevant certifications at a significant discount to European or North American rates.

Our advantage isn’t just about labour arbitrage – we also offer good infrastructure, high levels of English language proficiency, a shared time zone with Europe and a similar working culture to destinations such as the UK. This removes many of the cultural and communication challenges companies encounter in offshoring to destinations in other parts of the world.

At +OneX we have engaged on a number of projects in the UK since the start of the pandemic, and we are finding that the work we are doing for offshore companies offers benefits beyond the financial. It’s great that we are able to grow our business, of course, but we are also expanding our skillset and enriching our people’s experience through these engagements.

In years to come, we believe that offshoring of digital marketing work will offer a significant economic and job creation opportunity for South Africa. There is enormous value to be unlocked for agencies in other countries and local agencies in this market, which could follow the same road to success as South Africa’s BPO and contact centre space.


Wunderman Thompson SA Recognised For Creating Transformative Digital Customer Experiences

Wunderman Thompson SA Recognised For Creating Transformative Digital Customer Experiences

The Acquia Engage Awards recognise global organisations for creating transformative digital customer experiences. Wunderman Thompson was just named an Acquia Certified Practice Partner. It also won an award at the Global Acquia Engage event for The Scale, together with its client, Bayer.

The Acquia Engage Awards recognise high-impact digital experiences that organisations worldwide are building with the Acquia Open Digital Experience Platform (DXP), including Drupal Cloud and Marketing Cloud. Winners demonstrate an advanced level of functionality, integration, performance and user experience.

‘Showcasing the most impressive digital experiences across industries and geographies is a highlight of Acquia Engage,’ said Lynne Capozzi, Chief Marketing Officer at Acquia. ‘Each customer’s story demonstrates the impact that creatively designed and thoroughly executed digital experiences can have on customer engagement and organisational performance.’

Niel Mouton, MD of Wunderman Thompson Technology, is proud of the agency’s achievements at this year’s awards. He believes that while creating transformative digital experiences starts with the customer, it’s as important to partner with a good tech solutions vendor to achieve the best possible experience and drive business outcomes. ‘Being an Acquia Certified Practice Partner means that the complexity of digital transformation is in good hands, enabling us to focus on the best user experience across all digital channels.’

Many of this year’s Engage Award winners collaborate with one of more than 600 Acquia partners for specialised Drupal development and integration work, industry expertise or digital strategy. Wunderman Thompson SA is the global Drupal CoE for Wunderman Thompson globally, which has 14 global Drupal delivery centres, led by the CoE in SA.


Where Are The Legal Lines When It Comes To Creativity In Marketing And Advertising?

Where Are The Legal Lines When It Comes To Creativity In Marketing And Advertising
Zama Buthelezi, Partner at Spoor & Fisher South Africa.

Zama Buthelezi, Partner at Spoor & Fisher South Africa, asks: when it comes to intellectual property (IP), how do you avoid infringing someone else’s IP rights in your marketing and advertising? At the same time, how do you prevent someone else from infringing your rights?

Advertising is all about communicating a message in order to sell a product or service. The most successful advertisements are those that are creative and therefore memorable to the viewer. These kinds of advertisements often use material such as music, images and artwork in playful ways to ‘spice up’ the message. When it comes to copyright, here’s how marketers and advertisers can be creative within legal boundaries.

A quick look at copyright

Copyright protects specific categories of work, as soon as these works are expressed in material form. The works protected by copyright fall into these categories: literary works e.g. books; musical works e.g. songs; artistic works e.g. paintings; films; sound recordings; broadcasts; programme-carrying signals; published editions and computer programmes.

Once you know that a work fits into one of these categories, the work must still meet three requirements for copyright to subsist:

· It should be original (not necessarily novel or inventive),
· It must be in material form (that is, tangible and not just an idea) and
· The author must be a qualified person (in the case of a natural person, that is a national or resident of South Africa or a Berne Convention country and in the case of a juristic person, the author must be a body incorporated under the laws of South Africa or under the laws of a Berne convention country).

Artistic works, e.g. a logo created by a design agency

In this case, the ownership of the copyright automatically vests in the author or the agency itself, not in the person who instructed the agency. To transfer the copyright, a written assignment agreement must be entered into.

Where a logo is created by the agency and no assignment takes place, it must be borne in mind that the agency could step in to prevent a third party from registering (or even using) the logo as a trade mark.

Using songs in advertisements

Songs enjoy copyright protection as sound recordings and musical works. To get permission to use or sample music in an ad or piece of content, you’ll need to engage the copyright owner. Happily, most copyright owners are members of The Southern African Music Rights Organisation (SAMRO), which can assist you with licencing on the copyright owner’s behalf.

Here’s a hot tip: the channel or broadcaster through which you plan to advertise may already have a blanket licence with SAMRO, and so it may not be necessary for you to obtain a separate music licence. However, you must confirm this arrangement with the particular medium through which you will be advertising.

When it comes to using music in ads, you might learn a lesson from BMW, which caused an outcry on social media when its 2020 ad campaign for the BMW 330is featured a track that had perceived similarities to ‘Spirit’, a hit song by local artist Kwesta. The lesson: do not use music in ads without obtaining permission.

Featuring personalities in ads

Did you know that image rights or personality rights are protected under South Africa’s common law? These rights often come into play when using the identity or image of celebrities, brand ambassadors and even influencers.

Personality rights include the right of a person to control how their personality is commercialised. A couple of years ago, we saw Basetsana Kumalo enforcing her personality rights when Cycle Lab took a photo of her in one of their stores and the photo was published. Interestingly, Kumalo did not object to the photo being taken, but she did not give consent for its use in Cycle Lab’s advertising, so she took them to court, and won. The lesson to take from this is that permission must be obtained before using a person’s identity, name or likeness.

Considering contracts

Here are a few contracts that can go a long way in helping you avoid hot water.

Assignment agreements: these are used to transfer the ownership of copyright. These agreements must be in writing and signed by the assignor. It is important that these agreements define the copyrighted work. Be aware that moral rights, designed to protect the author’s honour and reputation, cannot be transferred, but they can be waived by the author.

Licencing agreements: these are relevant when the owner of the copyright wishes to retain ownership but wants to allow a third party to use the copyrighted work. These agreements are often relevant when it comes to using music and images – like the ‘stock images’ that come from image libraries. Among other things, your licencing agreement should stipulate how the work can be used by the licensee.

There are three types of licence: exclusive (only the licensee can use the material), sole (both the licensee and the licensor can use the material) and non-exclusive (the licensor retains the right to license the material to third parties).

Non-disclosure agreements: Let’s say you have a brilliant idea. Don’t disclose it to anyone without appropriate protection in place. An idea – in and of itself – is not protectable unless an NDA is in place between the parties.

Copyright exists on many mediums and platforms. We encounter it everywhere, every day. It is important to think twice when using any work that does not emanate from you, and most importantly: when in doubt, ask for permission.


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